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faces are given as containing some observations on it,) F. Ursinus, and by G. Garatonius, who calls it " omnium præstantissimus."

The Editor's notes, as indeed those of all the annotators, excepting Abramius, are for the most part critical.

Inquiry concerning the Site of Ancient Palibothra, Part IV., containing a Tour from Bhaugulpoor to Mandar, from thence to Curruck poor and a Circuit of the Hills, with an Account of the site of the ancient city of Jey Nuggur, and some remarks on the Jeyne worship: made during the months of December and January 1818-19 with a map of the route, views, &c. By William FRANCKLIN, Lieutenant-Colonel in the Service of the Hon. East India Company. 4to. 15s. bds.

An inaugural Lecture delivered in the Common Hall of the University of Glasgow, by D. K. SANDFORD, Esq. A. B. Oxon. Professor of Greek in the University of Glasgow. 2s. 6d.

Elements of Latin Prosody, containing rules for Quantity in English, with a full account of Versification, also classical authorities for the rules of quantity, and the Latin rules of Alvarez and Ruddiman. By R. I. BRYCE, A. M. Second edition, 12mo. 18.


Political Fragments of Archytas, Charondas, Zaleucus, and other ancient Pythagoreans, preserved by Stobæus; and also, Ethical Fragments of Hierocles, the celebrated commentator on the Golden Pythagoric verses, preserved by the same author. Translated from the Greek by Thomas TAYLOR. 250 copies only will be printed. One Vol. 8vo. 6s.

And by the same, a translation of the Metamorphosis, and Philosophical Works of Apuleius, in 1 vol. 8vo. 18s.

The Rev. Thomas H. Horne, M. A. has in the Press a third edition of his Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, in 4 vols octavo, corrected and illustrated with numerous Maps and Fac-Similes of Biblical Manuscripts. It is expected to be ready in the course of November next. At the same time will be published with one new plate, a small Supplement to the second edition, (of which a limited number only will be printed), so arranged as to be inserted in the respective volumes without injury to the binding.

M. Peerlkamp, the learned editor of Xenophon Ephesius, is appointed Professor in the University of Leyden; he succeeds to the late M. Borger, who had succeeded to Wyttenbach.


A friend to the Classical Journal has inquired, what languages are marked by the peculiarity of using no genders for inanimate objects. We will thank any of our correspondents for information on this point.

W's Criticism on Livy in No. 52.

W. on Corinthians has been received.

The Notice of Gilly's Spirit of the Gospels in our next.

On Two Passages in the Georgics in the next No.

Bonney's Life of Taylor in our next.

In Demosthenem Comment. in 52.

The other Oxford and Cambridge Prizes for 1822 in our next. Itinerary of Hassen is accepted.

Esop and Babrias in the next.

Professor Muller's Criseos Mythologica Specimen in 52.

We shall give as early an admission as possible to the Observationes of Gesenius.

R. T.'s Alcaics will appear.

Some of The Author's' Epigrams, &c. will be inserted.

One of our contributors will observe, silently, that, anxious as we are to discuss the merits and demerits of a work by fair argument and impartial criticism, we cannot imitate the principles of certain party Reviewers, whose aim is, not only to expose the errors, but to ruin the character and the property, of a writer.



By the Rev. E. SQUIRE, M. A.

Master of Felsted School. Price 78.

Also a Key to the above, containing the original passages, price 3s. N. B. This Work will be found very useful by Students at the Universities who intend to write for prizes.

Sold by J. Cuthell, Middle Row, Holborn; and H. Guy, Chelmsford.

This day is Published, in 8vo., 10s. 6d. boards, a New Edition of THE GULISTAN, or ROSE GARDEN,

By MUSLE-HUDDEEN SHAIK SADY, of Sheeraz. Translated from the Original, by FRANCIS GLADWIN, Esq. London: Printed for Kingsbury, Parbury, and Allen, Leadenhall


Of whom may be had, in 8vo., price 16s. boards, THE ABOVE WORK, in the original Persian, printed from the Calcutta edition published by Francis Gladwin, Esq. in 1806.



No. LII.



The SPIRIT OF THE GOSPEL, or the Four Evangelists Elucidated by Explanatory Observations, Historical References, and Miscellaneous Illustrations, by the Rev. W. S. GILLY, M. A. London : Whittaker, 10s. 8vo.

EVERY undertaking, whose object is to explain those passages in the Evangelical writings of the New Testament over which the hand of time, during the lapse of eighteen centuries, united with the remoteness of the scene, and the total difference of manners, opinions, and usages from their present state, has thrown a veil of obscurity, deserves the favorable, and even grateful, attention of the Christian world. That the difficulties alluded to have been removed by the investigations of learned men, as far, perhaps, as human ingenuity will permit, and complete illustrations afforded of those obscure passages, forms no objection to the utility of the present work. It may be added, as a valuable fact, that the discoveries and reports of modern travellers into the Holy Land, have amply confirmed the assertions of the sacred writers, as well as of the commentators and expositors, with respect to local customs and national opinions. But it happens that all this information is dispersed in such a variety of directions, and lies mixed up in such large masses of biblical erudition, that the generality of mankind, who have neither time nor talent for such studies, and yet are desirous of satisfaction on points so intimately concerning their faith and happiness, are compelled to remain in ignorance or uncertainty.

Before the reader can profit by the more useful of these elucidations, he must, as Mr. Gilly observes, wade through voluminous and expenVOL. XXVI. NO. LII. O


sive productions, and pick his weary way through the endless minutie of verbal criticisms, controversial questions, elaborate annotations, and curious disquisitions, most of which are written in unknown tongues.'

-Too expensive, too learned, or too dry, are the objections commonly made to compositions explanatory of Scripture. There is one class of persons who cannot gain access to the folios which contain the treasures of biblical exposition-there is another who, though they are not deeply versed in learned lore, and cannot therefore follow the theologian through all his profound inquiries, would wish to understand the tendency of them, and to know to what they lead, being fond of sacred reading, and anxious to give an answer to the hope that is in them: and there is another who, from their prejudice or indifference, require to be shown that the study of the Gospel is far from being so uninviting, or so destitute of literary charms as they have been led to imagine. With a view to accommodate the subject to each of these, the author has reduced his materials within the compass of a single volume, has offered few explanations which the plainest English reader may not perfectly understand; and has not, upon any occasion, inserted an illustration in any language but our own. Where it was necessary to have recourse to ancient or foreign authorities, the substance is communicated through the medium of a translation. He has likewise taken every opportunity of admitting such matter as may sometimes relieve the mind from the contemplation of graver topics, and fix it upon those beauties and graces with which the holy memoirs, as the Gospels have been happily called, are frequently interspersed. An historical reference, a tale or anecdote to the point, a custom or characteristic of the age or country in which our Saviour lived, or an elegant turn which some ancient or modern poet may have given to the subject-these have not been rejected where they could be subjoined with consistency and effect; where they are not irrelative or irreverend.

In pursuance of this plan, Mr. Gilly has selected from the Gospel of St. Matthew fifty-seven passages which in his opinion merited illustration; from St. Mark's, sixteen; from St. Luke's, thirty-four; and from St. John's, forty-six; and to each division prefixed a concise biography of the Evangelist himself, as far as it can be depended on. From each of these divisions we shall make extracts, as specimens of the whole, beginning with that much controverted subject, demoniacal possession.

Matthew viii. 28. And when he was come to the other side, into the country of the Gergesenes, there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by that way.

In ancient times it was an universal notion, not only amongst the Jews, but also amongst the Greeks and Romans, and the rest of the heathen world, that every disorder which took away the use of the understanding, or deprived a man of the right use of his bodily organs, was occasioned by the influence of some evil spirit. The term expressive of this terrible influence, and which has been translated possessed of a devil,' is of Greek extraction; and the same word, or form of words, with the same sense attached to them, as used in the Gospels, is to be met with in several profane writers both before and after our Saviour's time. Eschylus,

Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Lucian and others, speak of demoniacs;' which proves that the disorder to which they alluded had been common at all periods; and was not more prevalent in Judea during Christ's ministry, than in other countries, and at other times. If then the complaint which went under the name demoniacal had been long known previously to our Lord's abode upon earth; and if it could be cured upon any occasion, which Jesus himself insinuates had been the case, 'If I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out,' then it could be produced only by a natural, and not a preternatural cause. It may be shown that the persons whom the Evangelists describe as demoniacs were insane, or epileptic, from the terms being used synonymously, and from the particular cases of those from whom Christ was said 'to cast out devils.' The fierceness, the strength, and incoherent behaviour of some, evidently imported madness. The convulsions, the distortions, and foaming at the mouth of others, exhibited the dreadful effects of epilepsy. In the former cases, the wretched sufferers might figuratively be said to labor under a legion of devils;' in the latter, to be assailed by an unclean spirit.'

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When Jesus astonished the Jews by his declaration, 'Verily, verily I say unto you, if a man keep my saying, he shall never see death,' they concluded that he must be insane to utter such things; and to express themselves to that purpose, they exclaimed, 'Now we know that thou hast a devil. Upon another occasion also, they accused him of having lost his senses in similar terms. Many of them said, He hath a devil, and is mad:' but others who felt satisfied that such wisdom as Jesus showed could not come from a madman, replied, 'These are not the words of him that hath a devil.'-Mental derangement was for ages universally understood in the term 'demoniacal possession.' Even in the fifth century an eminent physician was blamed by Philostorgius for asserting that 'madness is not owing to the impulse of demons, but to a redundancy of peccant humors.'

If it be asked why our Saviour and his apostles should countenance the opinion of real possession, it may be answered that they only adhered to the accustomed modes of speaking on the subject. They called the malady by the name under which it was generally known, and in fact no more countenanced this hypothesis than they did the many mythological notions which the Jews entertained of a future state. Because Christ said that his disciples should eat and drink at his table in his kingdom,' did he mean to intimate that there would really be banquets in heaven, or did he only comply with the idioms and images then in use? The same argument will hold concerning demoniacal possession.

And on the same principle, Mr. Gilly explains the expulsion of the demons from the body of the man into the herd of swine.

The devils besought him,' the man (who fancied himself possessed with a devil) personated the spirit by whom he thought himself afflicted, and spoke as if he himself was the very demon. His conduct was the natural result of the impression which he felt, and of a disordered imagination: in the same manner as lunatics and hypochondriacs within our own observation imagine themselves to be something which they are not, and act and speak consistently with the wild notion they have taken up. Our Saviour humored the sufferer, and replied as if he were addressing the evil spirit, by whom the man imagined himself to be possessed.

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