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And the foolish ones said to the wiser :
"Give us oil, for our lamps are gone out."

But the wise answered, saying, "No, not so,
Lest there be not enough for us all ;
But rather go ye to the sellers

And buy that for which you would call."

And while they were gone on their errand,
The bridegroom came quietly in,
And they that were ready went with him
To the marriage which soon would begin.

And afterwards then came the others,

And said, "Lord, Lord, open the door";
But he answered them, saying, "I know not
Who ye are, that so madly implore."

Then watch for the son of man's coming,
For
ye know not the hour nor day.

If he come and should find you not ready,
He will turn all the foolish away.

ences.

PHILOSOPHIES OF HISTORY.

BY KAPPA.

History, in late years, has risen to a front rank among the sciMany of the ablest thinkers are devoting themselves to it. After spending their best years in studying its multifarious facts they are perhaps enabled to sum up some new truth as a result of their long investigations. This they give to the world in the shape of a book. But even after their many and long years of toil the brightest minds thus scatter abroad only a few new thoughts on this subject of philosophic history. Philosophy of history is just beginning to assume a complete form. And each historian is aiming at the true philosophy of history, and though he stops short of his goal others will take up his course and follow it closer and closer toward this great aim of the historian.

The histories of the world and of different nations always lay bare each author's misconstruction of their various facts on account of his error in philosophy of history. They also indicate a steady advance on his predecessor historians. By his fruits is the historian judged and his philosophy of history is found wanting as he reveals it in his works. To watch the steady approach toward truth is always interesting to a student of truth, and the historian's truth. is so intimately connected with our own immediate being and its actions as to render it interesting. The fundamental laws that governed the actions of the past generations are the same that govern ours, and as we see their "foot-prints on the sands of time" we may take warning or counsel from their actions and lives. This renders history interesting to us.

The idea of any systematic way of writing history did not enter the minds of very early writers. Herodotus wrote history after a fashion; yet his history is better than none and we are glad to take even doubtful authority on questions of history. He strung together stories, simple and beautiful, to amuse the people; but, like pebbles on the strand, they were dissimilar in appearance and there was no internal connection between them. There was no other use in history, according to Herodotus, than to amuse. But this was the first breaking of the truth on the minds of the ancients. Gradually his want of system and lack of definite aim in his history became apparent to the minds of the people as the dry series of facts given by different authors failed any longer to amuse them. This was the first idea of history.

Thucydides caught at the next step of the true philosophy of history. He added to the simple story a moral drawn from it, thus not only to amuse but also to instruct; and those "seeking a new thing," as the Athenians were quick to find, in this manner of presenting historic truth, a wide field from which to bring a new thing

as a moral drawn from a new story or a new moral from an old one-before the world. History was now approaching a more definite practical aim-to lift up the moral condition of the people by the morals drawn from its pages.

But again the fallacy of this philosophy became apparent as it was evident that thus its facts were viewed one sidedly. One moral was at first drawn from a fact; then two different morals were drawn from the same story by different authors. This continued

until the same fast became twisted around and contorted so as to exhibit different types of character from which to moralize, and the student of history found himself confused in the different phases of the same fact. But this was widening their historic comprehension. They began to realize gradually that we must look not only on one side of a fact but must look all around it and take all its bearings, if we would grasp at a true idea of history.

This reveals the third stage of philosophy of history. Historians now tried to find and exhibit in their histories all the motives of its actors and all the influences that might prejudice these, motives. Gradually the study of motives in the actors of history became more general. Undoubtedly the gradually increasing study of moral philosophy and ethics by the learned helped to turn their attention toward the study of motives. They analyzed the dispositions of men and considered how their peculiar dispositions would have led them to act under given circumstances. Facts thus led to the discovery of motives, and these motives disclosed the reality of the facts and gave them stability.

We would now think that the philosophy of history had advanced far enough to enable historians to analyze and work out all its problems. Motives,-what more can a man ask of his fellow man than whether his motives are good or ill? What more does the Court, the Law-those high arbiters of our actions ask, than what are the motives of men? And yet there were alarming gaps in history unexplained even by this seemingly all sufficient process. The question came up: Why were the motives of men so often not carried out? Why were men so often stopped on the threshhold of an act or at the beginning of a motive, by impulse and perhaps death. These, this philosophy of history could not answer. There was evidently some deep underlying principle in the philosophy of history which had not yet been found out. What was it? How was it to be found out? And here Christianity, which has dispensed so many happy thoughts to man, opened up the avenue toward this great principle wbich was destined to become the foundation stone of the true philosophy of history. God in history, was the truth needed. And the Christian's God is the only one whose omnipotence and omniscience will allow his being placed at the head of human

God in history-a fact that the pride of man would not permit them to admit, until they were driven to the wall. This

truth is becoming more evident every year, as scientific and archælogical research are revealing new things to our wondering understanding. Geology, as stratum after stratum is being read, is revealing more and more the footprints of the great Creator. Mineralogy calls for a former of its widely different metals, none of which could have sprung from the other. Botany and the microscopic sciences call for a fashioner in the minute but regular and symmetrical objects which they reveal to us. And while the material world calls forth this fact, the great moral world of history speaks it a necessity, that God overruling, supervising all things, should be introduced into its philosophy as the great truth by which are lighted up its dark points. The readings of ancient monuments, inscriptions, &c., establish the truthfulness of that most ancient volume of history, the Bible, whose philosophy of history has ever been founded on that underlying principle, God in history. The acknowledgment of this principle at the foundation, gives a dignity to the study of history-a nobleness of the mission of history, such as no other system has given. Buckle, it is true, attempted to shut up God within the gates of heaven. But Buckle soon found himself lost in a maze of inextricable difficulties.

Why was it Egypt came to her highest station in power and learning, just in the nick of time to instruct the Hebrews and prepare their minds for the reception of their grand moral code? How can this synchronism be accounted for? Why did Assyria rise just in time to punish the Hebrews for their violation of this high code of morality-the Hebrew law? How can the infidel philosopher account for the fact, that Alexander should rise and challenge the world, just in time to prepare it for the reception of the New Testament Scriptures? Or why should Rome spread her boundaries far and wide to protect the heaven-sent religion within her borders, and why should she then crumble up just at the time when Christianity was strong enough to build itself on her ruins? How did it happen that when the old Pagan Religions were crumbling, Christianity, should be on hand to step in and fill their places? Why was it that the Pope, with all his power, with princes and kings at his nod, was not able to lay hands on and check the influence of a German Monk! Why was Elizabeth with only about onethird of her subjects able to hold out against the great Spanish Armada and the turbulence of a great mass of her subjects who were

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Roman Catholics, and to conquer them? These are a few of the questions that dog the path of the old philosophies: Why did these things happen so? Why, is the question to be answered by philosophies, and former philosophies of history failed to answer it? God in history, answers all these questions-solves all these problems. Human motives fail to account for them. Divine purpose solves

them all.

On this foundation stone philosophy of history will build, gradually advancing higher and higher. Its advocates are not yet agreed as to how far they see the "footprints of the Creator" in history. But the fact is settled that he is there, and his presence there will only be the more felt as the ages roll on. osophy of history as received by the ablest historians. This is the present philthis fundamental truth, "God in history," may be allowed to expand itself on that philosophy, before the end of time shall come, remains yet to be seen.

How far

CLASSICAL LITERATURE.*

The utilitarian views of the American people, and an eager desire to participate in the active employments of life, prevent our young men from remaining at our colleges a sufficient time to lay the foundation of literary eminence. Classic scholarship, though by no means general, is not a rare acquirement; yet it must be confessed that we have but few, if any, who will bear a comparison with the distinguished men who have been connected with the German and English universities. The German scholars, in obedience to the inclinations of the metaphysical spirit for which they are remarkable, have been more particularly distinguished for a comprehensive appreciation of the design and spirit of the ancient models; the English have paid more attention to the lesser graces of style and idiom, and have been accustomed to spend more labor in composition. The translations, which have from time to time appeared from English pens, evince an intimate acquaintance with the laws of Greek and Latin prosody; and though, doubtless, inferior in ease and grace to the writings of the vernacular bards, approach as near to them as could be reasonably expected from a modern poet: The "Arundines Cami," is a collection of Greek and Latin translations by members of the University of Cambridge. The reeds of the Cam are no less musical than those of the river Ladon, *Taken from a magazine published thirty years ago.

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