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business; in whose assistance I find so much strength that I am not willing to do any thing without them: whereupon we, according to his majesty's prudent and constant rule, for observing in what reigns the precedents were, upon diligent search have found as followeth.

That king Edward I. called his eldest son prince Edward to his parliament in the thirtieth year of his reign, the prince then being about the age of eighteen years; and to another parliament in the four and thirtieth year of his reign.

Edward III. called the Black Prince his eldest son to his parliament in the five and twentieth, eight and twentieth, and two and fortieth years of his reign.

Henry IV. called prince Henry to his parliaments in the first, third, eighth, and eleventh years of his reign, the prince being under age in the three first parlia ments; and we find in particular, that the eighth year, the prince sat in the upper house in days of business, and recommended a bill to the lords.

King Edward IV. called prince Edward his son to his parliament, in anno 22 of his reign, being within age.

King Henry VII. called prince Arthur to his parlia`ment in the seventh year of his reign, being within age. Of King Edward VI. we find nothing, his years were tender, and he was not created prince of Wales. And for prince Henry, he was created prince of Wales during the last parliament at which he lived.

We have thought it our duty to relate to his majesty what we have found, and withal that the writs of summons to the prince are not much differing from the writs to the peers; for they run in fide et ligeancia, and sometime in fide et homagio in quibus nobis tenemini, and after, consilium nobis impensuri circa ardua regni. Whereby it should seem that princes came to parliament not only in the days of solemnity, when they come without writ, but also on the days of sitting. And if it should be so, then the prince may vote, and likewise may be of a committee of the upper house, and consequently may be of a conference with the lower house, and the like.

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This might have been made more manifest as to the presence, and acts of the prince in days of sitting, if, through the negligence of officers, the journal books of the upper house before the reign of king Henry VIII. were not all missing.

All which we thought it appertained to our care to look through, and faithfully to represent to his majesty: and having agreed secrecy amongst ourselves, and enjoined it to the inferior officers, we humbly desire to know his majesty's pleasure, whether he will silence the question altogether, or make use of it for his service, or refer it to his council, or what other course he will be pleased to take according to his great wisdom and good pleasure.

This we have dispatched the sooner, because the writs of summons must have forty days distance from the first days of the parliament. And for the other parts of our accounts, his majesty shall hear from us, by the grace of God, within few days; evermore praying for his majesty's prosperity, and wishing your lordship much happiness.

Your lordship's to be commanded,


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Stephens's CCLII. To the Marquis of BUCKINGHAM. My very good Lord,

second col lection, p. 137.

WE have, these two days past, made report to the board of our parliament committee, upon relation whereof for some things we provide, for some things

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The king, by my lord treasurer's signification, did twisely put it upon a consult, whether the patents, which we mentioned in our joint letters, were at this time to be removed by act of council, before parlia ment. I opined (but yet somewhat like Ovid's mistress, that strove, but yet as one that would be overcome) that yes. My reasons:

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That men would go better and faster to the main errand.

That these things should not be staged, nor talked of, and so the less fuel to the fire.

That in things of this nature, wherein the council had done the like in former particulars, which I enumerated, before parliament, near parliament, during parliament, the council were to keep their wonted centinel, as if they thought not of a parliament, to destroy, in other patents as concealments.

The reasons on the other side were:


That it would be thought but an humouring of the parliament, being now in the calends of a parliament, and that after parliament they would come up again.

That offered graces, by reason and experience, lose their thanks.

That they are to be suffered to play upon something, since they can do nothing of themselves.

That the choosing out of some things, when perhaps their minds might be more upon other things, would do no great effect.

That former patents taken away by act of council, were upon the complaints of particular persons; whereas now it should seem to be done tanquam ex officio.

To this I yielded, though, I confess, I am yet a little doubtful to the point of suavibus modis. But it is true that the speech of these, though in the lower house, may be contemned; and if way be given to them, as I writ to your lordship of some of them in my last, it will sort to your honour. For other things, the lords have put them in a very good way, of which I will give express account when I see his majesty, as also of other observations concerning parliament, For if his majesty said well, that when he knew the men and the elections, he would guess at the success; the prognosticks are not so good as I expected, occasioned by the late occurrents abroad, and the general licentious speaking of state matters, of which I wrote in my last. God ever keep you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend
and faithful servant,

16 Dec. 1620.


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CCLIII. To the Lord Chancellor.
My honourable Lord,

As soon as his majesty's convenience would permit, I have acquainted him with the draught of the procla mation your lordship sent me by his majesty's direction: his majesty liketh it in every point so well, both in matter and form, that he findeth no cause to alter a word in it, and would have your lordship acquaint the lords of the council with it, though he assureth himself, no man can find any thing in it to be changed, and to take order for the speedy setting it forth. And so I rest Yours, etc.

Theobalds, 21 Dec. 1620.


CCLIV. To the Lord Chancellor.

I HAVE acquainted his majesty with your letter and the inclosed: the matter which his majesty hath been thinking upon for his speech concerneth both the points of the institution of a parliament, and of the end for which this is called; yet his majesty thinketh it fit that some extract be made out of it, which needeth to be but very short, as he will shew you at his return. Yours, etc.

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İbid.p.136. CCLV. To the Marquis of BUCKINGHAM. My very good Lord,.

YESTERDAY I know was no day; now I hope I shall hear from your lordship, who are my anchor in these floods. Mean while to ease my heart, I have written to his majesty the inclosed; which I pray your lordship to read advisedly, and to deliver it, or not to deliver it, as you think good. God ever prosper your lordship.

March 25, 1621.

Yours ever what I can,

FR. ST. ALBAN, Canc.


It may please your most excellent Majesty,

TIME hath been when I have brought unto you gemitum columbæ from others, now I bring it from myself. I fly unto your majesty with the wings of a dove, which once within these seven days I thought would have carried me a higher flight. When I enter into myself, I find not the materials of such a tempest as is come upon me: I have been, as your majesty knoweth best, never author of any immoderate counsel, but always desired to have things carried suavibus modis. I have been no avaricious oppressor of the people. I have been no haughty, or intolerable, or hateful man, in my conversation or carriage: I have inherited no hatred from my father, but am a good patriot born. Whence should this be? For these are the things that use to raise dislikes abroad.

For the house of commons, I began my credit there, and now it must be the place of the sepulture thereof; and yet this parliament, upon the message touching religion, the old love revived, and they said, I was the same man still, only honesty was turned into honour.

For the upper house, even within these days, before these troubles, they seemed as to take me into their arms, finding in me ingenuity, which they took to be the true straight line of nobleness, without any crooks or angles.

And for the briberies and gifts wherewith I am charged, when the books of hearts shall be opened, I hope I shall not be found to have the troubled fountain of a corrupt heart, in a depraved habit of taking rewards to pervert justice; howsoever I may be frail, and partake of the abuses of the times.

And therefore I am resolved, when I come to my answer, not to trick up my innocency, as I writ to the lords, by cavillations or voidances; but to speak to them the language that my heart speaketh to me, in excusing, extenuating, or ingenuously confessing; praying to God to give me the grace to see the bottom of

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