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good between the queen and you, to alledge them, as oft as you find occasion, for authors and patterns: for I do not know a readier mean to make her ma

jesty think you are in your right way. Thirdly, when at any time your lordship upon occasion happen in speeches to do her majesty right, for there is no such matter as flattery amongst you all, I fear you handle it magis in speciem adornatis verbis, quam ut sentire videaris. So that a man may read formality in your countenance; whereas your lordship should do it familiarly, et oratione fida. Fourthly, your lordship should never be without some particulars afoot, which you should seem to pursue with earnestness and affection; and then let them fall, upon taking knowledge of her majesty's opposition and dislike. Of which, the weightiest sort may be, if your lordship offer to labour, in the behalf of some that you favour, for some of the places now void; choosing such a subject as you think her majesty is like to oppose unto: and if you will say that this is conjunctum cum aliena injuria, I will not answer, Hæc non aliter constabunt; but I say, commendation from so good a mouth doth not hurt a man, though you prevail not. A less weighty sort of particulars may be the pretence of some journeys, which at her majesty's request your lordship might relinquish : as if you would pretend a journey to see your living and estate towards Wales, or the like: for as for great foreign journeys of employment and service, it standeth not with your gravity to play or stratagem with them. And the lightest sort of particulars, which yet are not to be neglected, are in your habits, apparel, wearings, gestures, and the like.

The impression of greatest prejudice next, is that of a military dependence: wherein I cannot sufficiently wonder at your lordship's course, that you say, the wars are your occupation, and go on in that course: whereas, if I might have advised your lordship, you should have left that person at Plymouth, more than when in counsel, or in commending fit persons for service for wars, where it had been in season. And here, my lord, I pray mistake me not; I am not to play now

the part of a gown-man, that would frame you best to mine own turn. I know what I owe you. I am infinitely glad of this last journey, now it is past; the rather, because you may make so honourable a full point for a time. You have property good enough in that greatness: there is none can, of many years, ascend near you in competition. Besides, the disposing of the places and affairs both, concerning the wars, you increasing in other greatness, will of themselves flow to you; which will preserve that dependence in full measure. It is a thing that of all things I would have you retain, the times considered, and the necessity of the service; for other reason I know none: yet, I say, keep it in substance, but abolish it in shews to the queen; for her majesty loveth peace. Next, she loveth not charge. Thirdly, that kind of dependence maketh a suspected greatness. Therefore, quod instat agamus. Let that be a sleeping honour a while, and cure the queen's mind in that point. Therefore, again, whereas I heard your lordship designing to yourself the earl marshal's place, or the place of master of the ordnance; I did not in my mind so well like of either, because of their affinity with a martial greatness. But of the places now void, in my judgment and discretion, I would name you to the place of lord privy seal. Forfirst, it is the third person of the great officers of the crown. Next, it hath a kind of super-intendence over the secretary. It hath also an affinity with the court of wards, in regard of the fees from the liveries; and it is a fine honour, quiet place, and worth a thousand pounds by year and my lord admiral's father had it, who was a martial man; and it fits a favourite to carry her majesty's image in seal, who beareth it best expressed in heart. But my chief reason is, that which I first alledged, to divert her majesty from this impression of a martial greatness. In concurrence whereof, if your lordship shall not remit any thing of your former diligence at the Star-chamber; if you shall continue such intelligences as are worth the cherishing; if you shall pretend to be as bookish and contemplative as ever you were all these courses have both their advantages and


uses in themselves otherwise, and serve exceeding aptly to this purpose. Whereunto I add one expedient more, stronger than all the rest; and, for my own confident opinion, void of any prejudice or danger of diminution of your greatness; and that is, the bringing in of some martial man to be of the council; dealing directly with her majesty in it, as for her service, and your better assistance; choosing nevertheless some person that may be known, not to come in against you, by any former division. I judge the fittest to be my lord Mountjoy, or my lord Willoughby. And if your lordship see deeplier into it than I do, that you would not have it done in effect; yet in my opinion, you may serve your turn by the pretence of it, and stay it nevertheless.


The third impression is of a popular reputation; which, because it is a thing good in itself, being obtained as your lordship obtaineth it, that is, bonis artibus; and besides, well governed, is one of the best flowers of your greatness both present and to come; it would be handled tenderly. The only way is to quench it verbis and not rebus. And therefore to take all occasions to the queen, to speak against popularity and popular courses vehemently; and to tax it in all others: but, nevertheless, to go on in your honourable commonwealth courses as you do. And therefore, I will not advise you to cure this, by dealing in monopolies, or any oppressions: only, if in parliament your lordship be forward for treasure in respect of the wars, it becometh your person well; and if her majesty object popu larity to you at any time, I would say to her, a parliament will shew that; and so feed her with expectation.

The fourth impression, of the inequality between your estate of means, and your greatness of respects, is not to be neglected. For believe it, my lord, that till her majesty find you careful of your estate, she will not only think you more like to continue chargeable to her, but also have a conceit that you have higher imaginations. The remedies are, first, to 'profess it in all speeches to her: next, in such suits wherein both honour, gift, and profit may be taken, to communicate freely with her majesty, by way of inducing her to

grant, that it will be this benefit to you.

Lastly, to be plain with your lordship, for the gentlemen are such

as I am beholden to, nothing can make the queen, or the world think so much that you are come to a provident care of your estate, as the altering of some of your officers; who though they be as true to you as one hand to the other; yet opinio veritate major; but if, in respect of the bonds they may be entered into for your lordship, you cannot so well dismiss yourself of them, this cannot be done but with time.

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For the fifth and last, which is of the advantage of a favourite; as sever'd from the rest, it cannot hurt; so joined with them, it maketh her majesty more fearful and shadowy, as not knowing her own strength. The only remedy to this, is to give way to some other favourite, as in particular you shall find her majesty inclined; so as the subject hath no ill, nor dangerous aspect towards yourself. For otherwise, whosoever shall tell me, that you may not have singular use of a favourite at your devotion, I will say he understandeth not the queen's affection, nor your lordship's condition. And so I rest.

October 4, 1596.


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XXXIII. To my Lord of ESSEX.

It may please your good Lordship,

I PRAY God her majesty's weighing be not like the weight of a balance; gravia deorsum, levia sursum. But I am as far from being altered in devotion towards her, as I am from distrust that she will be altered in opinion towards me, when she knoweth me better. For myself, I have lost some opinion, some time, and some means; this is my account: but then for opinion, it is a blast that goeth and cometh; for time, it is true, goeth and cometh not; but yet I have learned that it may be redeemed.

For means, I value that most; and the rather, because I am purposed, not to follow the practice of the law, if her majesty command me in any particular, I shall be ready to do her willing service; and my reason






is only, because it drinketh too much time, which I have dedicated to better purposes. But even for that point of estate and means, I partly lean to Thales's opinion, That a philosopher may be rich if he will. Thus your lordship seeth how I comfort myself; to the increase whereof I would fain please myself to believe that to be true which my lord treasurer writeth; which is, that it is more than a philosopher can morally digest. But without any such high conceit, I esteem it like the pulling out of an aking tooth, which, I remember, when I was a child, and had little philosophy, I was glad of when it was done. For your lordship, I do think myself more beholden to you than to any man: and I say, I reckon myself as a common, not popular, but common; and as much as is lawful to be inclosed of a common, so much your lordship shall be sure to have.

Your Lordship's, to obey your honourable commands,
more settled than ever.

XXXIV. To my Lord of ESSEX.
My singular good Lord,

YOUR lordship's so honourable minding my poor fortune the last year, in the very entrance into that great action, which is a time of less leisure, and in so liberal an allowance of your care, as to write three letters to stir me up friends in your absence, doth, after a sort, warrant me not to object to myself your present quantity of affairs, whereby to silence myself from petition of the like favour. I brake with your lordship myself at the Tower; and I take it my brother hath since renewed the same motion, touching a fortune I was in thought to attempt, in genere œconomico. In genere politico, certain cross winds have blown contrary. My suit to your lordship is for your several letters to be left with me dormant, to the gentlewoman, and either of her parents: wherein I do not doubt, but as the beams of your favour have often dissolved the coldness of my fortune; so in this argument your lordship will do the like with your pen. My desire is also,

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