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"the world hath been possessed of an opinion, that they both were barbarously made away; though ever truth hath some sparks that fly abroad, until it 66 appear in due time, as this hath had. But Almighty "God, that stopped the mouth of the lion, and saved "little Joash from the tyranny of Athaliah, when she "massacred the King's children; and did save Isaac, "when the hand was stretched forth to sacrifice him; preserved the second brother. For I myself, that "stand here in your presence, am that very Richard, "Duke of York, brother of that unfortunate Prince, King Edward the fifth, now the most rightful surviving heir male to that victorious and most noble' Edward, of that name the fourth, late King of Eng"land. For the manner of my escape, it is fit it "should pass in silence, or, at least, in a more secret re"lation; for that it may concern some alive, and the 66 memory of some that are dead. Let it suffice to think, that I had then a mother living, a Queen, " and one that expected daily such a commandment "from the tyrant, for the murdering of her children. "Thus in my tender age escaping by God's mercy "out of London, I was secretly conveyed over sea: "where after a time the party that had me in charge,

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upon what new fears, change of mind, or practice, "God knoweth, suddenly forsook me. Whereby I "was forced to wander abroad, and to seek mean con"ditions for the sustaining of my life. Wherefore "distracted between several passions, the one of fear "to be known, lest the tyrant should have a new at"tempt upon me; the other of grief and disdain to "be unknown, and to live in that base and servile man"ner that I did; I resolved with myself to expect the "tyrant's death, and then to put myself into my sis"ter's hands, who was next heir to the crown. But in "this season it happened one Lenry Tudor, son to "Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, to come from "France and enter into the realm, and by subtile and "foul means to obtain the crown of the same, which "to me rightfully appertained: so that it was but a

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change from tyrant to tyrant. This Henry, my ex

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"treme and mortal enemy, so soon as he had knowledge of my being alive, imagined and wrought all "the subtile ways and means he could, to procure my "final destruction; for my mortal enemy hath not only falsly surmised me to be a feigned person,

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giving me nick-names, so abusing the world; but "also, to defer and put me from entry into England, "hath offered large sums of money to corrupt the "Princes and their ministers, with whom I have been "retained; and made importune labours to certain "servants about my person, to murder or poison me, "and others to forsake and leave my righteous quarrel, "and to depart from my service, as Sir Robert Clif"ford, and others. So that every man of reason may "well perceive, that Henry, calling himself King of England, needed not to have bestowed such great sums "of treasure, nor so to have busied himself with impor"tune and incessant labour and industry, to compass "my death and ruin, if I had been such a feigned person. "But the truth of my cause being so manifest, moved "the most Christian King Charles, and the lady "duchess dowager of Burgundy, my most dear aunt, "not only to acknowledge the truth thereof, but "lovingly to assist me. But it seemeth that God "above, for the good of this whole island, and the knitting of these two kingdoms of England and Scot"land in a strait concord and amity, by so great an "obligation, hath reserved the placing of me in the "imperial throne of England for the arms and suc"cours of your grace. Neither is it the first time that "a King of Scotland hath supported them that were be"reft and spoiled of the kingdom of England, as of "late, in fresh memory, it was done in the person of Henry the sixth. Wherefore, for that your grace hath

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given clear signs, that you are in no noble quality "inferior to your royal ancestors; I, so distressed a Prince, was hereby moved to come and put myself "into your royal hands, desiring your assistance to re"cover my kingdom of England; promising faithfully "to bear myself towards your grace no otherwise, than "if I were your own natural brother; and will, upon

"the recovery of mine inheritance, gratefully do you "all the pleasure that is in my utmost power.'

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After Perkin had told his tale, King James answered bravely and wisely; "That whatsoever he were, he "should not repent him of putting himself into his "hands." And from that time forth, though there wanted not some about him, that would have persuaded him that all was but an illusion; yet notwithstanding, either taken by Perkin's amiable and alluring behaviour, or inclining to the recommendation of the great Princes abroad, or willing to take an occasion of a war against King Henry, he entertained him in all things, as became the person of Richard duke of York; embraced his quarrel; and, the more to put it out of doubt, that he took him to be a great Prince, and not a representation only, he gave consent, that this duke should take to wife the lady. Catharine Gordon, daughter to the earl of Huntley, being a near kinswoman to the King himself, and a young virgin of excellent beauty and virtue.

Not long after, the King of Scots in person, with Perkin in his company, entered with a great army, though it consisted chiefly of borderers, being raised somewhat suddenly, into Northumberland. And Perkin, for a perfume before him as he went, caused to be published a proclamation * of this tenor following, in the name of Richard duke of York, true inheritor of the crown of England:

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"It hath pleased God, who putteth down the mighty "from their seat, and exalteth the humble, and "suffereth not the hopes of the just to perish in the ❝ end, to give us means at the length to show ourselves "armed unto our lieges and people of England. But far "be it from us to intend their hurt or damage, or to "make war upon them, otherwise than to deliver our"self and them from tyranny and oppression. For our "mortal enemy Henry Tudor, a false usurper of the "crown of England, which to us by natural and lineal " right appertaineth, knowing in his own heart our un

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* The original of this proclamation remaineth with Sir Robert Cotton, a worthy preserver and treasurer of rare antiquities: from whose manuscripts I have had much light for the furnishing of this work.

❝ doubted right, we being the very Richard duke of "York, younger son, and now surviving heir male of "the noble and victorious Edward the fourth, late

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King of England, hath not only deprived us of our "kingdom, but likewise by all foul and wicked means "sought to betray us, and bereave us of our life. Yet "if his tyranny only extended itself to our person, " although our royal blood teacheth us to be sensible "of injuries, it should be less to our grief. But this "Tudor, who boasteth himself to have overthrown a "tyrant, hath, ever since his first entrance into his " usurped reign, put little in practice, but tyranny and "the feats thereof.."

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"For King Richard, our unnatural uncle, although "desire of rule did blind him, yet, in his other actions, "like a true Plantagenet, was noble, and loved the "honour of the realm, and the contentment and "comfort of his nobles and people. But this our "mortal enemy, agreeable to the meanness of his "birth, hath trodden under foot the honour of this "nation: selling our best confederates for money, and making merchandise of the blood, estates, and for"tunes of our peers and subjects, by feigned wars, " and dishonourable peace, only to enrich his coffers. "Nor unlike hath been his hateful misgovernment and " evil deportments at home. First, he hath, to fortify "his false quarrel, caused divers nobles of this our "realm, whom he held suspect and stood in dread of, " to be cruelly murdered; as our cousin Sir William "Stanley, lord chamberlain, Sir Simon Mountfort, Sir "Robert Ratcliffe, William D'Aubigny, Humphrey "Stafford, and many others, besides such as have dearly bought their lives with intolerable ransoms : some of which nobles are now in the sanctuary: "Also he hath long kept, and yet keepeth in prison, our right intirely well-beloved cousin, Edward, son "and heir to our uncle duke of Clarence, and others; "withholding from them their rightful inheritance, to "the intent they should never be of might and power, "to aid and assist us at our need, after the duty of "their legiances. He also married by compulsion cer

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"tain of our sisters, and also the sister of our said cousin "the earl of Warwick, and divers other ladies of the "royal blood, unto certain of his kinsmen and friends "of simple and low degree; and, putting apart all "well disposed nobles, he hath none in favour and trust "about his person, but bishop Fox, Smith, Bray, "Lovel, Oliver King, David Owen, Risely, Turber"vile, Tiler, Chomley, Empson, James Hobart, John "Cut, Garth, Henry Wyat, and such other caitifs and

villains of birth, which by subtile inventions, and "pilling of the people, have been the principal finders, "occasioners, and counsellors of the misrule and mis"chief now reigning in England.

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"We remembering these premises, with the great " and execrable offences daily committed and done by our foresaid great enemy and his adherents, in breaking the liberties and franchises of our mother the holy Church, upon pretences of wicked and heathen"ish policy, to the high displeasure of Almighty "God, besides the manifold treasons, abominable ❝ murders, manslaughters, robberies, extortions, the daily pilling of the people by dismes, taxes, tallages, "benevolences, and other unlawful impositions, and grievous exactions, with many other hainous effects, "to the likely destruction and desolation of the whole "realm: shall by God's grace, and the help and "assistance of the great lords of our blood, with the "counsel of other sad persons, see that the com❝modities of our realm be employed to the most ad66 vantage of the same; the intercourse of merchandise "betwixt realm and realm to be ministered and handled ❝as shall more be to the common weal and prosperity ❝ of our subjects; and all such dismes, taxes, tallages, "benevolences, unlawful impositions, and grievous "exactions, as be above rehearsed, to be foredone and “laid apart, and never from henceforth to be called upon, but in such cases as our noble progenitors, "Kings of England, have of old time been accustomed "to have the aid, succour, and help of their subjects, "and true liege-men.

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"And farther, we do, out of our grace and clemency,

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