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gress betrays its shallowness. And some we find-a fewbest likened to the ocean, since they have all its varied moods; its depths and its music, its calmness and its storms. At one time we seem to hear the roar of its angry surges, as it breaks upon the shore, and anon, the plaintive murmur of its softly stealing waves; now, the hoarse scream of the birds that make their home on it shores; anon, the distant rustle of its hollow caves, and again, the sweet tones that come from its convoluted shells.

And where shall we find a type for Lessing. His must be an emblem of various import, for the thread of his life was a mingled one. Let us find it in the river, which, beginning as a peaceful brooklet, traces its silvery way through the meadow, oft returning upon itself, and enclosing in its windings many a green nook and flowery peninsula. But, as it advances, its course becomes less tortuous, it flows with a direct and rapid torrent, making for itself a deeper channel, and spreading a wider fertility. Presently, its passage is obstructed; its bed narrows; it must force its way through rocky straits;-but continually it triumphs, and gains strength by the triumph; trees grow up upon its banks, and mighty ships are borne upon its bosom. And now it rolls on with a mighty and resistless torrent, it has broken through every obstruction, it rushes forward, and the next moment pours itself into

"The unfathomable gulf where all is still."

We have

But we must bring these remarks to a close. attempted to convey to such of our readers as may not have studied his writings, some notion of the spirit and strivings of a man whose name, as connected with the period in which he came forward, and the effect which he wrought, must always be prominent in the history of his country's literature. But his writings have a permanent and intrinsic interest apart from their historical relations to his time; and the extracts we have given may enable our readers to form some impression of their claim upon the attention of the student of literature and of art.



ART. IV.-1. Report on Education in Europe, to the Trustees
of the Girard College for Orphans. By ALEXANder Dal-
LAS BACHE, LL. D., President of the College. Philadel-
phia: 1839. 8vo. pp. 666.

2. The Will and Biography of the late Stephen Girard, Esq.
Philadelphia: 1832. 8vo.
Svo. pp. 36.

3. Address on the occasion of laying the Corner Stone of the
Girard College for Orphans. By NICHOLAS BIDDLE. Phi-
ladelphia: 1833. 8vo. pp. 23.

4. Report of the Committee on Moral and Religious Instruction and Discipline, to the Trustees of the Girard College for Orphans. B. W. RICHARDS, Chairman. Philadelphia: 1833. Svo. pp. 15.

5. Report of the Committee on Clothing, Diet, etc., to the Board of Trustees of the Girard College for Orphans. George B. WOOD, M. D., Chairman. Philadelphia: 1835. 8vo. pp. 19.

6. Reports of Committees, Resolutions, etc., relative to the Organization of the Girard College for Orphans. Printed for the Board. Philadelphia: 1839. 8vo. pp. 55.

STEPHEN GIRARD, of the city of Philadelphia, "merchant and mariner," died on the 26th December, 1831. By extraordinary talents and success in business, he had, during a long and laborious life, amassed a fortune exceeding that of any other American citizen: This fact was most that was known of him before his decease. Holding himself aloof from society, absorbed in the cares of his vast estate, dead to all political honors, and scarcely allowing himself any recreations except such as consisted in a change of labor, he seemed to live in a world of his own, and to have few feelings in common with his fellow men. Without children, frugal in his habits, and wealthy beyond even the desires of avarice, he yet toiled on, in old age, with as keen an industry as if he had had the first dollar of his fortune to make,— a mystery to the community in which he lived, who were incapable of understanding so laborious a diligence, prompted by no other apparent motive than the mere love of amassing

and possessing. But death, which arrested his labors, revealed also their true source and object. It was not a fondness for money alone that had prompted and sustained him in his incessant toils. Whatever share this sentiment may have had in shaping his life, others, more elevated and generous, had undoubtedly mingled with it. The desire of posthumous fame, a hidden sympathy in the wants of the destitute and friendless, and a lofty public spirit, were, beyond all peradventure, no strangers in his bosom.

The correctness of this opinion concerning Mr. Girard's motives, is apparent from his will. After making liberal bequests to various charitable institutions, to the cities of Philadelphia and New Orleans, and to the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, amounting in all to some millions of dollars, he bequeaths in trust, to the select and common councils of Philadelphia, two millions for the erection and endowment of a college for "poor white male orphan children." To this absolute appropriation, he adds the right, should the necessity arise, of claining the income of residuary funds, amounting, as we learn from a statement by Mr. Biddle in one of the publications on our table, to within a fraction of four millions. The real endowment of the Girard College for Orphans may, therefore, be set down, in round numbers, at six million dollars. As at least half this property is real estate in Philadelphia, and continually increasing in value, the capital will ultimately be larger than it is at present. This bequest is without a parallel in the annals of individual munificence. It is nearly, if not quite, equal to the capital of the London blue-coat school, the most wealthy of the eleemosynary institutions of Great Britain, whose funds were contributed by successive British monarchs. The whole of the Smithsonian bequest, about which so much has been said, scarcely amounts to the double of what the yearly receipts of the Girard College will be. Well did Mr. Biddle, in his eloquent address on the occasion of laying the corner stone, say of Mr. Girard:

"His will, indeed, be the most durable basis of all human distinction-a wise benevolence in the cause of letters. The ordinary charity, which feeds or clothes the distressed, estimable as it is, relieves only the physical wants of the sufferer. But the enlightened beneficence, which looks deeper into the wants of our nature— which not merely prolongs existence, but renders that existence a blessing, by pouring into these recesses of sorrow the radiance of moral and intellectual cultivation-this it is which forms the world's

truest benefactor, and confers the most enduring of all glory-a glory the more secure, because the very objects of that benevolence are enabled to repay with fame the kindness which sustains them. "It is not unreasonable to conjecture, that in all future times, there will probably be in existence many thousand men who will owe to Girard the greatest of all blessings, a virtuous education; men who will have been rescued from want, and perhaps from vice, and armed with power to rise to wealth and distinction. Among them will be found some of our best educated citizens, accomplished scholars, intelligent mechanics, distinguished artists, and prominent statesmen. In the midst of their prosperity, such men can never forget the source of it, nor will they ever cease to mingle with their prayers, and to commemorate with their labors, the name of their great benefactor. What human being can be insensible to the happiness of having caused such a succession of good through remote ages, or not feel that such applause is more grateful than all the shouts which ever rose from the bloodiest field of battle, and worth all the vulgar fame of a hundred conquests!"

To the justness of this tribute to the name and memory of Mr. Girard, we, in the main, cordially subscribe. Yet, candor obliges us to make one abatement. Among the restrictions which Mr. Girard "considered it his duty to prescribe," in reference to the organization of the college, we find the following: "I enjoin and require that no ecclesiastic, missionary, or minister of any sect whatsoever, shall ever hold or exercise any station or duty whatever in the said college; ΠΟΥ shall any such person ever be admitted for any purpose, or as a visitor, within the premises appropriated to the said college." The origin of this remarkable prohibition, expressed with so much emphasis, seems to us to lie deeper than the mere want of an enlightened religious spirit. It has the appearance of an ebullition of passion against the whole clerical profession, per se, and in virtue of the nature of their office. Had he simply excluded clergymen from any share in the conduct of the institution, however the expediency of such exclusion might have been questioned, we should be less disposed to censure with severity. But when, not content with what might have satisfied the most mistaken sense of duty, he forbids a single minister of the gospel ever entering within the enclosure of the college, for any purpose, even to visit a brother, a son, a father, or a friend, among the professors, an inference, such as we know to have been very generally drawn from these premises, would scarcely appear to be a breach of that charity which St. Paul so beautifully de

scribes, as "hoping and believing all things" True, in the sentence following the above quotation from the will, Mr. Girard disclaims the design of casting "any reflection upon any sect or person whatsoever," adding, that he desired solely to "keep the tender minds of the orphans free from the excitement which clashing doctrines and sectarian controversy are so apt to produce." But these are the mere commonplaces of infidelity, extorted from the most notorious unbelievers by the religious sense of a Christian community; the involuntary eulogy of those who seek to overthrow the gospel, on that incomparable moral code, whose power and excellence they feel, though they refuse to acknowledge it. We say not that Mr. Girard was an infidel; but simply that there is nothing in the will which an infidel might not utter; and farther, that that part of the will which we are considering wears the appearance of a spirit hostile to religion. It is not strange, therefore, that the alarm of the religious public has been excited; and that many, having no other ground of judgment than the extraordinary provision under review, should have entertained the apprehension, if not the opinion, that the Girard College would be a school of infidelity. Of this number we confess ourselves once to have been. But, in the works before us, we have ample evidence that these fears are entirely groundless, and we think we shall be able to show them to be so to the satisfaction of all candid readers. Let us also do justice to Mr. Girard himself. In the paragraph on which we have animadverted, he expressly declares it to be his "desire, that all the instructors in the college shall take pains to instil into the minds of the scholars the purest principles of morality, so that, on their entrance into active life, they may, from inclination and habit, evince benevolence towards their fellow creatures, and a love of truth, sobriety, and industry." Where are "the purest principles of morality" to be sought? The only firm basis of moral character, the only true source of moral excellence, the only pure and infallible code of ethics, is the system of doctrines and duties revealed in the Christian scriptures. And this, evidently, is the understanding of the gentlemen having charge of the Girard College for Orphans.

The Report of President Bache, the chief of the publications named at the head of this article, is the first fruits of Mr. Girard's munificent bequest. It is an elaborate and detailed account of the various systems of education and edu

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